The roots of Georgian - truly ancient nation and one of the world`s oldest uninterrupted civilizations - are archeologically substantiated over a period more than three thousand years. Culturally, historically, and politically Georgia is considered part of Europe; however, the official geographic classification o f the country varies according to different sources. Sometimes Georgia is considered a transcontinental nation. Because of its location on the ancient Silk Road, Georgia has absorbed and transformed the traditions of many other lands, while producing a vibrant and unique culture of its own. The nation`s literary tradition, ranging from epic poetry to modern drama, is among the world"s finest; and the icons and frescoes of Georgia"s mountain-top churches, dating from its Golden Age in the 12th century, are among the supreme achievements of Christian art.
The English name Georgia is a transliteration of the classical term (Γεωργία) according to archaeological research, the Greek and Aramaic alphabets were used for the purposes of commerce before officially adopting the Georgian alphabet during the reign of King Pharnavaz I of Iberia. The Georgian Kingdoms of Iberia and Egrisi were founded between the 6th and 4th centuries BC, in the territory of modern Georgia and the historical Georgian region of Tao-Klarjeti. These succeeded to the Kingdoms of Diaokhi (Eastern and South-Eastern Georgia and Tao-Klarjeti (now territory of Turkey)) and Kolkha (Western Georgia) were founded around the end of the 2nd millennium B.C. and beginning of the 1st millennium B.C. In 327, Christianity was declared the official state religion in the ancient Georgian Kingdom of Iberia, making Georgia one of the oldest countries to declare Christianity as her official state religion. The Bible was translated into Georgian in the 5th century
Georgians were the oldest metal-using tribe of the world. Only the Georgian artistic achievements in metalwork can be compared to those of architecture during the Middle Ages. The craft has an illustrious pedigree in the Caucasus that goes back to the third millennium BC. From the barrow graves in Trialeti we already know that the ancestors of the Georgian were accomplished in smelting, forging, soldering, stamping, and embossing articles of the greatest delicacy as early as the Bronze Age (from the second millennium to the beginning of the first millennium BC). The numerous bronze belt buckles of fantastic animals that have come down to us from the second half of the first millennium BC provide fascinating links with the animal forms later associated with Scythian art. Examples of Georgian jewelry from the fourth and fifth centuries BC attest to the high technical and aesthetic standards; granulation, embossing, and delicate filigree work created earrings, rings, and pendants equal to anything pro duced in the antique world. The niello, gold, and sometimes silver icons, crosses, jewelry, and book covers that date from the eighth and ninth centuries are among the earliest examples of the medieval goldsmiths` skills. Pieces such as the Ishkhani Processional Cross from 973, the Khobi Icon of the Virgin Mary (tenth century), and the Martvili Cross and the silver roundel of St. Mamai from Gelati (eleventh century), and the famous Khakhuli Triptych (twelfth century) can be seen in the treasury of the Georgian State Museum.
Mankind`s First Alphabet
The great Georgian scientist Ivane Javakhishvili said about the alphabet linear system: "The Georgian alphabet ancient form and its gradual evolution had not yet been studied and still attempts were made at solving such complex questions as, for instance, its origin. People, who had specially studied the Georgian alphabet, were not adequately equipped with either the Georgian or other language script and its graphical evolution knowledge." The formula found by Georgian scientists have explained the system of Georgian alphabet as well as of others. The same formula confirms the ancient cuneiform notebooks and their cursive system - it has become possible to decipher Sumerian clay tables and stamps dating back to 5 000 year B.C., the ones, which had not been explained by the world Sumerologists. This alphabet contains the pantheon of the deities of the Universe, a gathering, initiating all religious trends of humankind.
The Georgian majuscule (Asomtavruli) is the Sumerian alphabet! Georgian scientists say, that alphabet begins with Sumer and up to now no scientist in the world has been able to prove it, since no one has ever approached Sumers` old writings with the Georgian majuscule in mind; Sumerians inherited the alphabet from the moment they appeared on the Earth, in the same way as in the Universe there exists a metal with the name of "amutum", not found on the earth, worth 5 times the price of gold and 40 times the price of silver. Georgian discoveries match the ideas and investigations of the American scientist Samuel N. Kramer, given in his book "History Begins with Sumer".
The Sumerian alphabet had to be traced and actually was reconstructed through the linear formula saved by the Caucasian Mountain depositories and the ancient colored clay tablet at the Ankara Museum of Ancient History, which an English scholar Melart dates 6 500 - 5 600 B.C., thus by 900 years preceding our dating, the year 5 600; however, this all the more substantiates our finding and coincides with the year 5 600.
There is no other discovery in the world that can boast such time and linear coincidence. Here the mountain depositories have retained the great culture of the civilization of the Universe which in the entire East was buried by religion. This ancient culture was demolished by Christianity in Georgia and by Islam in Asia Minor and Near East. The initial ancient Sumerian words are with a surprising precision interpreted by the languages retained in Georgia: Mengrelian, Svanian and Georgian itself (these languages and the people, considered by the world scientists to be dead and demolished, have been preserved and are alive here, in Georgia).
Origin of Wine
Georgia is the oldest wine producing region of the world. The fertile valleys of the South Caucasus, which Georgia straddles, are believed by many archaeologists to be the source of the world`s first cultivated grapevines and Neolithic wine producti on, over 7000 years ago. Scientists have discovered the world"s oldest wine - a vintage produced 8,000 years ago. The find pushes back the history of wine by several hundred years. New discoveries show how Neolithic man was busy making red wine in Shulaveri (modern Georgia). Although no liquid wine from the period has survived, scientists have now found and tested wine residues discovered on the inner surfaces of 8,000-year-old ceramic storage jars.
Biochemical tests on the ancient pottery wine jars from Georgia are showing that at this early period humans were deliberately adding anti-bacterial preservatives to grape juice so that the resulting wine could be kept for longer periods after fermentation. Due to the many millennia of wine in Georgian history, the traditions of its viticulture are entwined and inseparable with the country`s national identity.
It has been archeologically proven that the roots of Georgian viticulture are between 7000 and 5000 BC, when peoples of South Caucasus discovered that wild grape juice turned into wine when it was left buried through the winter in a shallow pit. This knowledge was nourished by experience, and from 4000 BC Georgians were cultivating grapes and burying clay vessels, Kvevri, in which to store their wine ready for serving at perfect ground temperature. When filled with the fermented juice of the harvest, the Kvevris are topped with a wooden lid and then covered and sealed with Earth. Some may remain entombed for up to 50 years. So, all evidence points out that the wine was born in Georgia.
Dmansis Hominid - First Europeans
The recently discovered Dmanisi hominid in the foothills of the lesser Caucasus provides a remarkable 1.8 million year old link with humankind"s first transition from Africa to Europe. It is no surprise to find numerous Stone Age settlements and archeological sites spread through the Georgian Heartland. Recent excavations of Dmanisi have revealed an extraordinary record of the earliest hominid dispersal beyond Africa. Several hominid individuals (4 skulls, 3 of them with maxillas, 4 mandibles, 16 isolated teeth and 24 post-cranial elements), along with abundant well-preserved remains of fossil animals and stone artifacts have been found. In 2003-04 fields season another new hominid mandible, with fascinating pathologies having implications for the evolution of human disease and also social behavior has been discovered. This is the richest and most complete collection of indisputable early Homo remains outside of Africa with good stratigraphic context, now well dated to about 1.75 million years ago. Skulls, found in the Dmanisi region of Georgia and thoroughly studied in France prove that the first Europeans came from this territory around 1.75 million years ago. This fact is accepted and acknowledged by scholars and scientists all over the world. After this discovery it is without any doubt that Georgia is a motherland of the first European.
Eco Tours !!!
The Georgian landscape is especially suited to the eco-tourist, due to its relatively unspoiled status and absence of mass tourism. Tourists have a possibility to spend their time in seclusion in the nature, wander in protected areas and valleys known for their endemism. The eco-tourist will find much of interest to him in Georgia.
Cultural Tours !!!
One can visit impressive historical sights in every corner of Georgia. The culture of Georgia has evolved over the county`s long history, providing it with strong literary tradition. The unique Georgian alphabet, which is among the fourteen existing ones in the world dates back to 5th century BC.
Georgia has historically found itself on the margins of great empires; its territory was a desirable land for greatest Asian empires in the course of centuries. Despite numerous invasions and wars Davit the Builder (1089-1125), Georgia`s greatest and the most prominent king, managed to unite Georgia in 12th century. The reign of Davit the Builder and King Tamar (1184-1213) has passed into history as an epoch of state reconstruction, cultural efflorescence, social-economic resurgence and construction of churches and monasteries.
Hardly any other country except Georgia has experienced such a great number of assaults and still been able to reserve intact so many characteristic. Numerous churches and fortifications bear witness to the country`s restless historic past.
Explore UNESCO World Heritage Sights and various architectural and historical and historical monuments full of legends and mystery. Learn more about the traditions of ancient Georgian civilization.
Sea Tours in Georgia !!!
Each of Georgia`s beaches offer a number of activities ranging from dolphin watching, climbing lighthouses, fishing, kayaking, canoeing and scuba diving. Most of them are secluded beaches and make an ideal honeymooners and families alike. Here are some good beaches to visit: Batumi, Kobuleti, Ureki, Anaklia.
Recreational Tours !!!
Georgia can offer visitors a numerous balneological and recreation resorts, but the most popular of them are these three: Borjomi, Sairme, Shovi.
Special Interest Tours !!!
There is no country, except Georgia where wine is more revered and a wine culture so developed and cherished. Incredibly there are 500 indigenous species of grape used for wine far more than anywhere else; most of them are still completely unknown to the rest world. Here you can taste widely unique varieties of wine in a vast array of subtle flavor differences.
Today the most wine is still produced in exactly the same way it was long ago. Grapes are placed in large earthenware vessels called "quevri", some large enough to fit a person inside, buried in the ground up to their necks. These special wine vaults are then sealed and left to ferment for 3-4 months. The result is a tannin and vitamin-rich wine, completely organic and distinctively flavorful.
Visit any home in the premiere wine-growing region of Kakheti and be greeted at the door by a glass of traditionally made home-produced wine- a tradition dating back at least 3,000 years, and delight to any traveler. Names like Saperavi, Mukuzani, Teliani are becoming increasingly familiar to wine connoisseurs around the world. We are more than proud to show off the process that takes these fine grapes from wine to bottle- and then of course to the Georgian Table.
Mountain Tours !!!
Due to its superb mountain setting Georgia is perfectly suited to those seeking any kind of adventure. In the 19th century Georgia`s huge peaks attracted the worlds great explorers shortly after the Alps were finally conquered. Today mountaineers are no less drawn here. Summits like Mt. Ushba (4710 meters) the Caucasian "Matterhorn", Mt. Tetnuldi (4974 meters), Mt. Kazbegi (5033 meters), Mt. Shkhara (5068 meters) offer full-on challenges to the world`s top climbers. Below them are numerous glaciers and excellent rock-climbs of every grade. The lower ridges are becoming increasingly popular with paragliders.
Rafting or white water rafting is a challenging recreational outdoor activity using an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other bodies of water. This is usually done on white water or different degrees of rough water, in order to thrill and excite the raft passengers. The development of this activity as a leisure sport has become popular since the mid-1970s. It is considered an extreme sport, as it can be dangerous. Running down the valleys are swift-flowing rivers, ideal for rafting and kayaking, full of a wide variety of difficulty rapids.
There are 6 stages of difficulty of the river in Georgia:
1st category - easy river without streams, light maneuvers are needed (e.g. River Mtkvari near Mtskheta). For them who prefer to rest.
2nd category - fast river, with different resistances (middle size stones). Maneuvers are needed (e.g. River Aragvi in summer.)
3rd category - fast flow. Middle size streams and holes. Good maneuvers are needed (e.g. River Aragvi in summer, Mtkavri, Rioni ). Everybody in the boat is wet after this kind of a tour.
4th category - strong and fast flow, streams, holes and stoppers foresee some danger, experience is needed to maneuver (e.g. River Rioni, Tskhenistskali, Mtkvari in spring).
5th category - big streams, there can be met blocks and other contradictions. Covering this category of river is a kind of risk for heath and life. Professional experience is needed (e.g. Special sections of the rivers: Enguri, tergi, Mtkvari, and Rioni).
6th category - the risk is very high in this category. There are some rivers of this category in Georgia - Tergi, Enguri, Rioni. When you pass this kind of a river, you can say that you are a very lucky person!
Exploring Deep Caves
The Caucasus has some of Europe`s largest caving opportunities. Georgia is famous for its ancient cities carved out of stone. Nowhere else are such ancient labyrinths so well preserved. Three cities are of primary interest: Vardzia, Uplistsikhe, Davit Gareji.
Ski Tours in Georgia!!!
While many ski-slopes around the world are starting to run thin on snow, Georgian Mountains continue to offer an extended natural snow skiing season. The snow here is deep and soft and fresh powder is common. On the whole slopes are superb with a vertical drop about 1,000 meters and continuous runs of between six and fifteen kilometers. In winter Georgia attracts tourists to its famous mountain-skiing resort centers - Gudauri and Bakuriani, where from November till April there is permanent snow. Gudauri, Bakuriani, Mestia, Khulo and Betania are three most popular ski-resorts.
The most famous information about Georgia in the world
1. Georgian alphabet is one of the 14 alphabets of the world, which is the oldest.
2. Signaghi prison - the fence, is the first area in Europe and second in the world after the Chinese Wall.
3. The highest peaks are in Georgia.
4. Ushguli is the highest village in Europe.
5. The first Eurasian foot-step is found in Dmanisi.
6. The Iron Age archaeological monument is found in Trialeti, the pictures on the rock (The roebuck is sucking the roe)
7. The motherland of Wine is Georgia.
8. The first gold mines are discovered in Georgia, in Sakdrisi.
9. The Robe of Christ and Saint Maria - is kept in Georgia.
10. The first song which was sent is space - " Chakrulo" – is Georgian.
11. Georgia is Stalin’s homeland.
12. Georgia with its flora and fauna.
13. The 1800 years old yew-tree is in Georgia.
14. Georgia is the motherland of Medea and Kirk.
15. The motherland of Amirani (Greece Promete) .
16. The 12 Apostle of Christ –two of them Matatasa and Simon's grave is in Georgia